Accumulation of Innate Amyloid Beta Peptide in Glioblastoma Tumors
L.Y. Kucheryavykh , J. Ortiz-Rivera , Y. V. Kucheryavykh , A. Zayas-Santiago, A. Diaz-Garcia and M.Y. Inyushin
Immunostaining with specific antibodies has shown that innate amyloid beta (Aβ) is accumulated naturally in glioma tumors and nearby blood vessels in a mouse model of glioma. In immunofluorescence images, Aβ peptide coincides with glioma cells, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have shown that Aβ peptide is enriched in the membrane protein fraction of tumor cells. ELISAs have also confirmed that the Aβ(1–40) peptide is enriched in glioma tumor areas relative to healthy brain areas. Thioflavin staining revealed that at least some amyloid is present in glioma tumors in aggregated forms. We may suggest that the presence of aggregated amyloid in glioma tumors together with the presence of Aβ immunofluorescence coinciding with glioma cells and the nearby vasculature imply that the source of Aβ peptides in glioma can be systemic Aβ from blood vessels, but this question remains unresolved and needs additional studies.
Review: Platelet-generated amyloid beta peptides in Alzheimer’s disease and glaucoma.
Inyushin M, Zayas-Santiago A, Rojas L, Kucheryavykh Y, Kucheryavykh L
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides have been implicated in both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and glaucoma and have been shown to be the key etiological factor in these dangerous health complications. On the other hand, it is well known that Aβ peptide can be generated from its precursor protein and massively released from the blood to nearby tissue upon the activation of platelets due to their involvement in innate immunity and inflammation processes. Here we review evidence about the development of AD and glaucoma neuronal damage showing their dependence on platelet count and activation. The correlation between the effect on platelet count and the effectiveness of anti-AD and anti-glaucoma therapies suggest that platelets may be an important player in these diseases.